Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a disease of the artery wall, without atherosclerosis (cholesterol deposits) or inflammation present. Sometimes this can lead to an arterial stenosis (narrowing), a dilation (aneurysm) or a dissection (tear) of the affected artery. A stenosis or a dissection can be responsible for a reduction in arterial blood flow. The effect of this reduced blood flow depends on the location of the arteries involved. A ruptured aneurysm could be a cause of internal bleeding and would require urgent medical attention.
Many patients affected by FMD have no symptoms or detectable signs of the disease during medical examination. Often the disease is picked up during medical imaging (CT scan or IRM) carried out for another reason.